Each customers must have hope in making a purchasing decision. Hope is what has a big role as a standard of comparison in evaluating the quality and customer satisfaction. Certainly many factors that influence it, but Valerie A. Zeithaml and Mary Jo Bitner grouping factors proficiency level as follows:
1. Word Of Mouth
Word of mouth is a statement (personal or non personal) submitted by persons other than the organization (service provider) to the customer. Word of mouth is usually quickly accepted by customers due to the present who can be trusted, such as experts, friends, family, mass media publications. Word of mouth is quickly accepted as a reference because the customer service is usually difficult to evaluate the services that have not been bought or have not felt alone.
Fundamental needs is also very decisive expectations. These needs include the need for physical, social, and psychological.
3. Past Experience
Past experience covers things that have been studied or known customers from ever received in the past. It makes customer perception. This customer expectations evolve over time, as more and more information (non-experimental information) received by customers as well as customers become more experienced.
4. External Communications
This factor is a statement directly or indirectly by the company about its services to customers.
This factor will play an important role in shaping expectations of customers to the company. This expectation can be formed from media advertising, personal selling, agreement or communication with the employee organization.